Status Update

As some of you will already know, I have left ADF.  Part of the reason for my leaving has to do with my last post here but there are other reasons which are just as important to me.

However despite leaving ADF, I am continuing to pursue my Druidry and will likely continue to post the occasional essay on things that interest me and which I hope will be of interest to others.

 

Dropping out of ADF’s Initiate Path…

When I completed ADF’s Dedicant Path program and started on the Initiate Path, I expected to be continually challenged intellectually, creatively, and emotionally.  I wanted to deepen my spiritual practice and help my community at the same time, and I thought that the Initiate Path would do just that.   And for a time, it seemed to be living up to the promise.  I finished off two courses (Liturgy 1 and IE Studies 1) in six months.  I thorough enjoyed them, and they passed review with only one of them needing a minor revision.

Then came Indo-European Myth 1.  If you have been reading my previous posts you’ll know that I found this work to be tedious and struggled with coming up with the determination to get through it.  When I finally submitted it, I felt like a huge burden  had been lifted off my shoulders.  Alas, my elation was short lived.  Neither of my previous reviewers had anything critical to say about my citations or my choices of sources.  This time around, however, my feedback was all about how much I suck at those things.

Now, I’m all grown-up with emotional intelligence and all that, and can take some criticism even when it is disappointing.  However the entire tone of the feedback was that my submission was nothing more than an irritant, lacking any merit, and how dare I waste their time with such sloppy work, and who do I think I am citing sources that are not on their bookshelf?

Life is too short to spend it churning out essays only to be berated for the effort.

 

IE Myth 1: Differences and Similarities

At long last I am done with this painful course!

5.  To what extent do you think we can offer conjectures about Indo-European myths in general? Are the common themes strong enough that the myths seem like variations? Or are the differences so powerful that the themes are less important than the cultural variations? (minimum 300 words)

It is abundantly clear from the work of George Dumézil and his followers that many of the myths of Indo-European speaking peoples derived from common roots.  The tripartite social structure appears again and again in these stories.  We see echoes of common roots in the similarities between concepts such as Elysium and Tír na nÓg.  A reading of Puhvel’s tome shows us dozens if not hundreds of these faint relations between different cultures.

However, while we do see many common themes and elements, the fact is that the stories themselves are far more different than they are similar.  The proto-Indo-Europeans lived around 4,000 BCE.  However, the first texts do not appear until approximately 800 BCE — a delay of some 3,200 years.  For some of the Indo-European speaking cultures we do not have written accounts until many more centuries had past.  Given this vast time span it is perfectly understandable that the original stories would have mutated constantly until they were no longer recognizable beyond a few general themes.  The unstable nature of oral traditions, diffusion from neighbouring cultures, and continual adaptation to new socio-political and geographical circumstances would have all worked together to create powerful change in the myths over time.

This is not to say that comparative analysis of the myths has no value for a Neo-Pagan tradition.  Common themes within the stories can be drawn upon to create powerful rituals that tap into the deep well of ancestral wisdom within us.  Those working to recreate a proto-Indo-European practice can certainly use the commonalities to sketch broad elements that are ripe for creative reconstruction.  However, if the question is whether we can view the extant myths of Indo-European speaking peoples as simple variations on clear themes then the answer must be no.  The hard fact is that the best sources for understanding a specific Indo-European speaking culture are the primary sources for that culture.

 

Indo-European Myth I: ADF elements in Greek and Irish Myth

One more down… only one to go!

4. Discuss how the following seven elements of ADF’s cosmology are (or are not) reflected in the myths of two different Indo-European cultures. For this question, please use the same two cultures as a basis of comparison for the entire question. (minimum 100 words each)

Upperworld

In Greek myth, the upperworld is considered to manifest itself at the peak of Mount Olympus. Hesiod tells us that it was from the snowy Olympus that Zeus and the Greek Gods waged war upon the Titans. In the stories Olympus is a place of song, being the home of the nine Muses, a place for eating ambrosia and drinking nectar, and a gathering place where the Gods took council.

In Irish myth, on the other hand, there is no reflection of the concept of the upperworld. Modern writing on the topic often attempts to create a Celtic three-fold cosmos out of tidbits which may be faint echoes of very ancient beliefs, but the texts simply do not provide adequate evidence for such a cosmology.

Middleworld

Neither Greek nor Irish myths pay much mind to the notion of a “middleworld”. This is presumably because such a thing would be the Earth or the Land itself; the mundane world. That said, for the Greeks there was an implicit division between Mount Olympus, Earth, and Hades; the Earth was home to humans, animals, as well as a host of nature spirits, but typically the Gods did not dwell there and only come to visit. However for the Celts such a division did not exist; the Tuatha Dé Danann lived on the Earth and made their home in Ireland.

Divisions Of Middleworld (e.g., 4 Quarters, 3 Triads, 8 Sections)

Ancient Ireland was divided into four main provinces and a fifth in Meath. These provinces were certainly aligned to directions, with Ulster in the north, Leinster in the east, Connacht in the west, Munster in the south, and Meath in the middle. Some Celtic Neo-Pagan traditions, including some within ADF, assign symbolic significance to these associations, for example by heralding the provinces as quarters during ritual. However, Irish myth itself treats the provinces rather simply as geographical and political divisions.

Meanwhile, the Greeks recognized no such divisions, perhaps due to their advanced knowledge of geography owing to their adventurousness. However they did recognize the Anemoi; the Gods of the Winds of the four directions.

Nether/Underworld

The Greek myths abound with stories of the underworld. Hesiod tell us of two such places; Tartarus, far below the ground, where Zeus imprisoned the Titans, and the realm of Hades in the “lower world”. But in addition to these places under the world, there appear to have been places of the dead within the world as well. In The Odyssey, Homer describes the Elysian plain where fortunate men life an easy after-life and there is no snow, rain, nor hail.

The Celts did not seem to have an underworld but rather envisioned an otherworld like that of Elysium, known variously as Tír na nÓg or many other names. Some stories make this otherworld out as an island where others describe it as being in some way parallel to the mundane world.

Fire

Greek myth contains one of the most famous stories about fire; its theft from the Gods. According to the story, the Gods wished to keep fire for themselves but Prometheus lit a fennel stalk from it and smuggled the fire back to Earth and gave it to the people. For this offense, Zeus punished humanity with Pandora and Prometheus by chaining him to a rock where his liver was devoured by an Eagle every day.

The Irish Celts have no similar stories. Fires certainly make appearances, and some of the Celtic deities, notably Brigid, are commonly associated with fire, but the element simply doesn’t resonate in the texts in the same way as the story of Prometheus.

Well

The Greek stories do not abound with wells, however they do make a few appearances. The winged horse Pegasus is said to stomped his hoof and thus created a well called the Hippocrene on Mount Helicon during a contest amongst the Muses. The Celtic stories are a bit more demonstrative of wells, with the best known being that of Nechtan. Nechtan’s well was surrounded by nine hazelnut trees, the fruit of which granted knowledge. These nuts would fall from the tree and be eaten by the salmon in the well. One day Nechtan’s wife Boann tried to draw water from the well, causing the water to gush forth and create the river Boyne.

Tree

Trees do not figure large in either Greek or Irish Celtic myths. From the Greeks comes the story of the nymph Daphne who attracted the unwanted attention of Apollo. When her flight from the god appeared doomed, she appealed to either her father the local river god or to her mother Gaia depending on the version. In response to her appeal Daphne was transformed into a Laurel tree and thus saved from divine rape.

Although they do appear in Welsh stories, references to trees in the Irish texts are even more obscure than in the Greek. The Fionn Cycle contains a few stories in which trees make an appearance, but these tend to be incidental.

IE Myth I: Elements of Myth and Ritual

Well, it  has only taken me four months but I finally finished requirement 3 of I-E Myth I.  I found this essay to be tedious beyond description.  Time and time again I would come back to this, read the requirement, groan, and walk away.  The up side is that I got pretty close to the minimum word count for each one…

3. Explain how each of the following elements of ADF ritual does or does not resonate with elements of two different Indo-European cultures (you need not use the same two cultures as a basis of comparison for each element): (minimum 100 words each)

Earth Mother

The concept of an “Earth Mother” does not particularly resonate within the culture of any Indo-European speaking peoples.  Hesoid of course famously tells us of Gaia marrying Uranos and giving birth to the Titans.  In the story, Gaia is quite clearly an Earth Mother figure.  However, Puhvel convincingly demonstrates that the entire myth seems to have been imported from the Phoenicians (30).

Rather than an Earth Mother, what we do encounter in Indo-European myth is a much more complex Goddess; she who represents the sovereignty of the land and who bestows kingship on those she chooses.  As an example, the Irish poem Baile in Scáil tells of how Conn came to visit Lugh in the otherworld and how a mysterious woman with a cup of mead pronounced that Conn would be King of Ireland.  A similar story appears in Beowulf when Queen Wealhtheow initiates a cup-offering ritual in Hrothgar’s hall.

Deities of Land

I would like to start answering this with a note that I do not believe that “Deities of Land, Sea, and Sky” are actual recognized elements of ADF ritual.  That said, we discussed earlier how Tales of Divine War may have involved the forced integration of the Dumézilian third function, that of fertility and production, into society.  Bres is called ‘The Beautiful’, presumably a reference to his fertility.  He is also called upon at the end of Cath Maige Tuired to provide agricultural advice to the Tuatha Dé Danann.  In Norse myth the Vanir play a similar role, especially the twins Freyja and Freyr who represent fertility, peace, and plenty (Davidson, 124).

Whether these fertility deities can truly be said to be ‘Of the Land’ relies on an assumption that the ‘Land’ part of Land, Sea, and Sky is associated with the Dumézilian third function.  This is a question for which there is no definitive answer but as with most things, ADF ritual provides plenty of flexibility to accommodate many perspectives.

Deities of Sea

Deities of the Sea and other bodies of water are fairly common amongst the myths of Indo-European speaking peoples.  This is particularly true of the Greeks.  In the Iliad, Homer refers to “Neptune, ruler of the seas profound”. The Homeric Hymn to Poseidon implores the “God of the deep” to help sailors (Atsma).

Meanwhile from the Irish and Manx Celts we find the myths of Manannán mac Lir, whose surname means “Son of the Sea” and who rides a chariot across the waves (Jones).  Interestingly, both Poseidon and Manannán are also strongly associated with horses which hints at a possible proto-Indo-European myth relating waters with these animals.

Deities of Sky

As with Sea Gods, there are no shortage of Sky Deities amongst the myths of Indo-European speakers.  Also as with the sea, these are predominantly male.  The Romans held no deity higher than Jupiter, whose name derives from the proto-Indo-European *Dyēu-pəter – “sky father” (Mallory 431).  The Indic culture had a cognate in the god Dyauṣ Pitrā.  However unlike Jupiter who had the good fortune of being the Roman’s state Patron, Dyauṣ seems to have faded into obscurity relatively early on.  It was actually a son of Dyauṣ, Indra, who became most commonly associated with the elements of the sky within Vedic religion.

Outsiders

IE-speaking peoples were certainly not unique in having ‘outsiders’ in their myths, but they certainly did have them in abundance.  The Irish texts speak of two major races of outsiders.  The Fir Bolg were the first of these to be encountered by the Tuatha Dé Danann upon their arrival in Ireland and were defeated in the first battle of Mag Tuired.  Thereafter the Tuatha found themselves oppressed by the Fomoire lived on or under the sea.  These outsiders were defeated at the second battle of Mag Tuired.

In Norse mythology the best known outsiders are the Jotun, or giants.  The Jotun are often portrayed as being in opposition to the Gods, and the Fire Giants in particular are said to be instrumental in the destruction of the world during Ragnarök.

Nature Spirits

Arguably the most famous types of nature spirits are the nymphs and satyrs of the Greeks.  Nymphs are female spirits commonly associated with a location such as a glade or a body of water.  Satyrs are goat-like spirits said to primarily inhabit forests.  Greek myth and art abound with references to these two types of spirits.

In other cultures like the Welsh, nature spirits tend to be the stuff of folklore rather than myth proper.  One exception is the tale of Blodeuwedd from the fourth book of the Mabinogi.  Blodeuwedd was a maiden created by Math and Gywdion out of flowers as a wife for Llew Llaw Gyffes but who falls in love with a travelling knight and ends up trying to murder her husband.

Ancestors

All pre-Christian Indo-European speaking peoples honoured their ancestors.  However this question relates specifically to myth as opposed to religious practices, and finding stories in which actual ancestors play a role are difficult to find although not impossible.  In the Greek myths according to Homer, Odysseus made a journey to the underworld and there encountered his mother.  She told him of how she died and provided him with a brief report of how things were going back at home.

Meanwhile from the Norse we have the exceptional tale known as the Hervararkviða (“The Lay of Hervor”).  This story tells us of the shield-maiden Hervor who travels to the barrows where her father Angantýr was buried.  There she invokes her father’s ghost and convinces him to give her his cursed sword Tyrfing.